Probate valuations

Probate and How to Calculate Inheritance Tax

The complexities of calculating inheritance tax can be daunting.

Understanding the intricacies of probate, the various thresholds, exemptions and reliefs available is crucial.

This article aims to provide a brief guide on how to calculate inheritance tax.

It covers:

  • the role of probate
  • the importance of accurate estate valuation
  • the impact of domicile on tax liability
  • the residence nil rate band
  • the process of claiming business relief
  • the qualifications for agricultural relief.

The article aims to provide a clearer understanding of the inheritance tax calculation process and how to tackle it however, if you are struggling with the process , you can always use our find a legal advisor service.

Understanding Inheritance Tax and Probate

Inheritance tax is a levy paid on the estate of a deceased person.

The estate includes all the property, money and possessions of the deceased.

In the UK, the standard inheritance tax rate is 40%. This is charged on the part of the estate that’s above the current threshold. As of the most recent update, here are the key details regarding inheritance tax thresholds in England and Wales:

Basic Inheritance Tax Threshold (Nil Rate Band)

£325,000: This is the amount up to which an estate can be worth before any inheritance tax is due. This threshold has been frozen until April 2026.

Residence Nil Rate Band (RNRB)

£175,000: An additional allowance for those who leave their home to their direct descendants (children or grandchildren). This is available on top of the basic inheritance tax threshold.


The RNRB is reduced by £1 for every £2 that the estate exceeds £2 million.

Married Couples and Civil Partners

Couples can combine their allowances. This means they can potentially pass on up to **£1 million** (combining both Nil Rate Band and Residence Nil Rate Band) without any inheritance tax liability if they meet the necessary conditions.

These thresholds are correct at the time of writing, but the rules are subject to change, so it’s always good to check for the most recent information or consult a tax or legal professional for specific advice.

Understanding these exemptions, along with the process of probate, is key to accurately calculating inheritance tax.

The Role of Probate in Inheritance Tax

Probate is a legal process that gives someone the authority to deal with a deceased person’s estate.

This process involves valuing the estate, paying any outstanding debts, and distributing the remaining assets as per the deceased’s will or according to the law of intestacy (in the absence of a valid will).

In the context of inheritance tax, probate plays a crucial role as it involves the valuation of the estate, which is the basis for the tax calculation.

The Simplified Step-by-Step Guide to Calculating Inheritance Tax

Identify all assets: This includes property, money, and possessions, as well as any gifts made within the last seven years.

Value the assets: Get a professional valuation for property and other significant assets.

Deduct liabilities: Subtract any outstanding debts, such as mortgages or loans from the total value of the assets.

Apply exemptions and reliefs: Deduct any available exemptions and reliefs, such as the spouse exemption or business relief.

Calculate the tax: Apply the 40% tax rate to the part of the estate that’s above the £325,000 threshold.

Remember, this is a simplified guide. The actual process can be more complex, especially for larger estates or those with assets abroad.

Estate Valuation and Its Importance

Estate valuation is a crucial part of the inheritance tax calculation process.

It involves determining the value of all the assets in the estate at the time of death.

An accurate valuation is essential as it forms the basis for the tax calculation. Any errors or inaccuracies can result in either overpayment or underpayment of tax, both of which can have serious consequences.

Additional Inheritance Tax Allowances

In addition to the standard threshold and the residence nil rate band, there are several other allowances that can reduce the inheritance tax due.

These include the spouse or civil partner exemption, which allows you to leave everything to your spouse or civil partner without any inheritance tax due.

There’s also the charity exemption, which means that any gifts to charities are exempt from inheritance tax.

Understanding and utilising these allowances can significantly reduce the inheritance tax due on an estate.

Reliefs and Deductions

Inheritance tax calculation also involves understanding the various reliefs and deductions available.

These can significantly reduce the taxable value of an estate.

Some of the main reliefs include business relief, agricultural relief, and the rules on gifting.

Understanding these reliefs and how to apply them can be complex, but they can significantly reduce the inheritance tax due. It’s highly advisable to check with a probate professional to establish if any of these reliefs or deductions apply to the estate. Missing out could be a very costly mistake! A mistake that Executors and Administrators can be held personally liable for.

Business Relief and Agricultural Relief

Business relief can reduce the value of a business or its assets when working out how much inheritance tax has to be paid.

Depending on the circumstances, you can get either 50% or 100% business relief.

Agricultural relief can reduce the value of a farm or its assets when calculating inheritance tax.

This can be up to 100%, depending on the circumstances.

Rules on Gifting and Other Exemptions

The rules on gifting allow you to give away assets or cash up to a certain value without incurring inheritance tax.

This includes the annual exemption of £3,000 and small gift exemption.

It’s important to note that gifts given within seven years of death may still be subject to inheritance tax and therefore need to be included in the calculations. Failure to do so can result in an inheritance tax underpayment. Executors and Administrators can be held personally liable for the underpayment.

Dealing with HMRC and Inheritance Tax Forms

HMRC are responsible for ensuring that the correct amount of tax is paid and can impose penalties for late or incorrect payments. In other words, HMRC is responsible for collecting and enforcing inheritance tax.

When dealing with inheritance tax, it’s crucial to understand the role of HMRC and the forms required. They provide several forms that need to be completed and submitted, including the main inheritance tax form, IHT400, and supplementary schedules.

Completing and Submitting Inheritance Tax Forms

The IHT400 form is a comprehensive document that covers all aspects of the deceased’s estate.

It’s important to fill out this form accurately and in detail, as it forms the basis of the inheritance tax calculation. Supplementary schedules may also be required, depending on the complexity of the estate. It’s important to ensure that all valuations are accurate and every detail is answered. Poorly completed forms can result in incorrect calculations and probate delays.

Additional Considerations in Inheritance Tax

Understanding these factors can help you navigate the inheritance tax process more effectively.

Domicile and Its Impact on Inheritance Tax

The domicile of the deceased can significantly impact the inheritance tax due.

If the deceased was domiciled in the UK, their worldwide assets are subject to inheritance tax.

However, if they were a non-domicile, only their UK assets are taxed.

Probate Loans and Paying Inheritance Tax

Probate loans can be a useful tool for paying inheritance tax.

These loans allow the executor to pay the tax due without having to sell assets from the estate.

Professional Advice

Inheritance tax calculation can be a complex process, with many factors to consider.

It’s crucial to understand the various thresholds, allowances, and reliefs available, as well as the role of probate and the impact of the deceased’s domicile.

However, given the complexity and potential financial implications, it’s often advisable to seek professional advice.

A tax professional or financial planner can provide valuable guidance, helping you to avoid mistakes and potentially save a significant amount in tax.

Find a Probate Service













Your Probate Legal Advice Options

You may also be interested in……

Go to Top